Many, if not most of us who had been to school would have had music as a part of our curriculum. We have all studied do-re-mi and the different notes like the whole, note, half note etc. We have also been taught about the Treble Clef or the G-clef and the Bass or F-clef. If you had music as a subject, as a second grader you should been taught the basic theories of music and are most probably acquainted with FACE and the Every Good Boy Does Fine notes on the staff. If not, let me refresh your memory.
The black notes on the line or spaces of the grand staff (g-clef and F-clef) represent the tones on your piano. The letter F, A, C and E falls on the four spaces of the G clef of the grand staff (the upper 5 lines) and in that order. F occupies the first space at the bottom and E occupies the last space at the top. So we have F for the fa note, A for the La note, C for do and E for mi. Now the phrase "every good boy does fine" falls on the lines. The first line is E or as was said earlier the note mi, G is sol, B is ti; D is re and F is again fa. So your basic do-re-mi-fa-sol-la-ti notes are the tones C-D-E-F-G-A-B in order.
A piano keyboard has 88 notes or keys, with seven sets or octaves beginning with the A tone on the left or the lowest octave and a C tone at the right or the highest octave. The "middle C" as the name implies is at the very middle of the whole keyboard it is the 40th tone if you count all the keys on the piano both black and white beginning at the lowest end or at the left end of the keyboard. So all the notes on the G-clef or Treble clef of the music piece falls on the right side e of the middle C in your piano; while all the notes on the F-clef of the Bass-Clef falls on the left side of the middle C.
You should also remember that all the natural notes are played on the white keys of your piano while sharps (#) and flats (b) in your music piece are played on the black keys. If it's a sharp you go the black key on the right. If it's a flat you play the black key on the left. These are the basics you should know before even exercises on the piano itself.